Iron supplementation and erythropoietin replacement improve symptoms but have not been shown to reduce hospitalisation or mortality.
- Anaemia occurs in more than 10% of patients with heart failure.
- Anaemia is associated with decreased survival and increased hospitalisation in patients with heart failure.
- Anaemia is multifactorial, including not only iron deficiency but also bone marrow paresis and haemodilution.
- Alternative causes for anaemia should be sought and corrected in patients with heart failure.
- Iron replacement improves symptoms in anaemic or non-anaemic patients with heart failure – even without a change in haemoglobin concentration.
- Correction of anaemia by erythropoiesis stimulants is associated with improved symptoms in heart failure.